Types of kidneys transplant
- Deceased donor transplant – We may get a healthy donated kidney from a deceased donor that is someone who is dead and donated his kidney.Usually its made sure the donor and recipient are often in the same region to minimize the time the kidney is outside a human body.
- Living donor transplant – living people who donate one of their kidneys are called living donor , may be a family member , friend or even stranger , that person will need a health exam to test whether the kidney is a good match .
- Pre-emptive kidney transplant – It is kidney transplant before going in for dialysis , A pre-emptive kidney transplant is a kidney transplant that takes place before your kidney function deteriorates to the point of needing dialysis .
Diagnosis for kidney transplant
(ERSD) – End Stage Renal Disease is the prime reason for undergoing kidney transplant, as it cannot be treated with medical treatments , Dialysis and kidney transplantation are the only life saving treatment for this condition .
Compared to dialysis, kidney transplant is associated with:
- Better quality of life
- Lower risk of death
- Fewer dietary restrictions
- Lower treatment cost
Procedure of kidney transplant
Step I -Medical and Psychological assessment
The physician determines whether you are healthy enough for surgery or that you have a condition that would make transplantation difficult to succeed Also checked whether you are psychologically prepared for the responsibilities of caring for a transplanted kidney. You will need to have blood tests as well as other tests to check your heart and other organs. Your blood type and other matching factors
if your medical evaluation shows you are a candidate for a transplant, your transplant center will submit your name to be placed on the waiting list for a kidney from a deceased donor. Waiting period may range to even a few years.
If a family member or friend wants to donate a kidney, that person will need a health exam to test whether the kidney is a good match in such cases you do not need to be placed on the waiting list and can schedule the surgery when it is convenient for you and your donor.
Step II– Blood tests for cross matching before transplant
The transplant team considers three factors in matching kidneys with potential recipients. These matching factors help predict whether your body’s immune system—will accept or reject the new kidney.
- Blood type. Your blood type—A, B, AB, or O—must be compatible with the donor’s. Blood type is the most important matching factor..
- Human leukocyte antigens. These six antigens are proteins that help your immune system tell the difference between your own body’s tissues and foreign substances.
- Cross-matching antigens. A lab technician mixes a small sample of your blood with a sample of the organ donor’s blood in a tube to see if the mixture causes a reaction. If no reaction occurs—called a negative cross-match—the transplant can proceed.
Step III – Procedure
- Performed under general anaesthesia , procedure may last 3-4 hours
- The damaged kidney is left in place and not removed from the body unless it is infected.
- The donor kidney will be placed in your lower abdomen, The surgeon connects the artery and vein from the donor kidney to an artery and a vein in your body so your blood flows through your new kidney.
- The surgeon attaches the ureter from the donor kidney to your bladder, letting urine flow from the new kidney to your bladder.
- The new kidney may start working right away or may take up to a few weeks to make urine until then you my require dialysis treatment.
Step IV-After procedure
- You will have to stay in the hospital for few days after you receive your donor kidney. In few cases ,you may have to receive dialysis till the donor kidney starts functioning
- Your immune system detects your new kidney as foreign. So it will try and reject it , thus to keep your body from rejecting the donor kidney , you will have to take immunosuppressant medications that suppress body immune response.
- Antibiotics are prescribed after procedure to protect against infections.
- Follow-ups are important for successful transplantation
- Regular checkups initially weekly and gradually reducing the frequency of testing to ascertain how well the kidney is functioning and not going into rejection episode .
Complications of the procedure
As in any surgery kidney transplant surgery too carries a risk of complications
- Blood clots
- Infection which can also be transmitted from donor kidney
- Leaking from or blockage of the tube (ureter) that links the kidney to the bladder
- Failure / rejection of the donated kidney
- Side effects of immunosuppressant medicines like bone thinning osteoporosis and bone damage (osteonecrosis ),increased risk of infections esp skin cancer , oedema and weight gain .
Factors Affecting Cost Of Kidney Transplant
The cost to the patient depends on a variety of factors like
- The hospital, the patient chooses.
- Room –Standard single room, deluxe room, super deluxe room for the number of nights specified (including nursing fee, meals, room rate, and room service).
- Fee for the team of doctors and OT charges
- cost of medications
- Standard tests and diagnostic procedures.
- Cost of the follow –up care required after the procedure