A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat coronary heart disease. The procedure improves blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart by diverting blood around narrowed or clogged parts of the major arteries. .
A coronary artery bypass graft involves attaching a new blood vessel (known as a graft) to the coronary artery above and below the narrowed area or blockage. The new blood vessel is taken from another part of the body – usually the chest, leg or arm.
A number of the patient’s coronary blood vessels could be narrowed so accordingly the number of grafts will be needed to be done. General Anesthesia would be given for a coronary artery bypass graft which means the patient would be unconscious during the operation. The procedure usually takes between three and six hours.
DIAGNOSIS FOR DETECTING CABG TREATMENT
The common symptoms of CABG includes:
- Fatigue with severe tiredness
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Abnormal heart rhythms
- Swelling in the hands and feet
Angina: Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. It is called Angina when the patient experiences chest pain or shortness of breath due to the narrowing of the arteries.
Heart Attack: Heart Attack or myocardial infarction can be major or minor heart attack. It is a serious medical condition and requires immediate medical attention.
Medical Tests to determine the need for Heart Bypass or Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Treatment
Firstly a general physical examination is done. Various tests will be performed to find out which arteries are clogged, how much they are clogged, and whether there has been any heart damage. Following tests are mostly advised:
- EKG (Electrocardiogram): This test is performed to detect and records the heart’s electrical activity.
- Stress Test: A test that measures the heart’s ability to respond to external stress such as a period of strenuous exercise.
- Echocardiography: It is a test that uses high frequency sound waves or ultrasound to take pictures of the heart and provide information about the size and shape of the heart and how well the heart’s chambers and valves are working.
- Coronary Angiography: This is a special X-ray test that enables the doctor find blockages that can cause a heart attack.
TREATMENT PROCEDURE FOR CABG
A coronary artery bypass graft involves taking a blood vessel from another part of the body – usually the chest, leg or arm. This new blood vessel or graft is then attached to the coronary artery above and below the narrowed area or blockage.
The surgical procedure can be performed by the Traditional method in which the chest is opened to reach the heart or the Non-traditional method wherein small incisions (cuts) are made to bypass the blocked or narrowed artery.
The Operation process involves –
- Patient is given General Anesthesia & a ventilator is attached
- In the traditional method the doctor makes an incision down the centre of the chest. Chest bone is then cut & the rib cage is opened to locate the heart.
- To get a new blood vessel or graft, an artery or vein is taken from the body of the patient. Generally the new blood vessel is taken from the chest or leg-and prepared to be used as a graft for the bypass.
- After the grafting is complete, blood flow to the heart is restored
- Normally, the heart starts beating again on its own. However in some cases, mild electric shocks are required to restart the heart.
- Then the heart-lung bypass machine is disconnected from the patient.
- Wires are used to close the chest bone and these wires stay in the body permanently.
- The incision is then closed with stitches or staples.
- After the procedure hospital stay is required and may vary between 7 to 9 days.
Factors Affecting Cost of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Treatment
- The hospital that the patient is opting for would be an important determinant of the total treatment cost.
- Category of the Room taken and number of nights – There are different prices for standard single room, deluxe room or a super deluxe room. This could also include nursing fee, meals, room rate and room service
- Operating room and ICU costs
- Fee for the team of doctors which typically includes the Surgeons, Anesthetist, Physiotherapist and the Dietician
- Cost of Medicines
- Standard Tests and diagnostic procedures
- Cost of the follow–up care which is required post the operation.