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Heart Valve Replacement (MVR) Treatment in India

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Heart Valve Replacement can be recommended if the patient experiences any of the following conditions – difficulty in catching ones breadth, fatigue, palpitations, fainting etc. These symptoms can mean that the patient has a damaged valve. Simply put an Aortic Valve Replacement is a surgery to replace a damaged aortic valve.

It is advised that when the aortic valve is not functioning properly in cases of aortic valve stenosis and aortic valve regurgitation then a surgery should be conducted.

During this surgical procedure the damaged valve is removed and replaced with an artificial valve. In most cases the valve replacement is an open-heart surgery; however in few cases a minimally invasive surgery or a catheter procedure may be possible.

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Recommened Hospitals

  • Noida
  • New Delhi
  • Gurgaon
  • Gurgaon

Recommened Doctors for Treatment

  • Cardiology, AngioplastyASD/VSD ClosureValve Replacement Chief, MBBS, MS, MCh, 20 years of experience
  • Cardiology, AngioplastyValve Replacement Chairman, MBBS, MD, DM, Fellowship, 28 years of experience
  • Cardiology, AngioplastyHeart BypassValve Replacement Head of Department, MBBS, MS, MCh, Fellowship, Fellowship, 27 years of experience
  • Cardiology, AngioplastyASD/VSD ClosureEndocrinologyHeart BypassPediatric CardiologistValve Replacement Director, MBBS, MS, MCh, 22 years of experience
  • Cardiology, AngioplastyEndocrinologyValve Replacement Director, MBBS, MD, DM, 37 years of experience
  • Cardiology, AngioplastyASD/VSD ClosureHeart BypassPediatric CardiologistValve Replacement Director, MBBS, MD, Fellowship, Fellowship, 32 years of experience
  • Cardiology, Heart BypassValve Replacement Chairman, MBBS, MNAMS, MS, 37 years of experience

An aortic valve replacement is a type of open heart surgery aimed at treating problems of the heart’s aortic valve. It involves the removal and replacement of a faulty or damaged valve.

Diagnosis for aortic valve replacement surgery
  • Aortic stenosis – occurs when the opening of the heart’s aortic valve becomes smaller. This condition obstructs the flow of blood out of the heart into the main artery and onwards to the rest of the body.
  • Aortic regurgitation – it is also called as aortic incompetence; In this condition the aortic valve is leaky therefore blood flows back into the heart.
Signs of heart failure requiring valve replacement
  • Shortness of breath or failure to catch one’s own breadth
  • Angina
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Swelling of ankles, feet and legs
  • Fatigue
Physical Examination

The doctor will conduct a thorough physical examination –

  • Use a stethoscope to listen to the heart murmur typically caused by a heart valve problem
  • Check for fluid  in lungs
  • Check for swollen ankles and other signs for water retention
Diagnostic Tests
  • Echocardiography (echo)is the main test for diagnosing heart valve disease and uses ultrasound to create images of the heart. This test allows the doctor to monitor the functioning of the heart and its valves.
  • Transesophageal echo, or TEE,is a specialized probe to get a clearer image and structures of the patient’s heart.
  • ECG(electrocardiogram) is a process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time; it is used to diagnose irregular heart beat and signs of any previous heart attack.
  • Chest X ray– this diagnostic test will show if the heart is enlarged or if there are fluid in the lung or calcium deposits in the heart.
  • Cardiac Catheterization, Stress Testing, or Cardiac MRIenables the doctor to understand the severity of the patient’s condition and accordingly plan the treatment.
Types of  Aortic Valve Surgery  
  • Open Aortic Valve Replacement via Sternotomy– wherein the damaged aortic valve is replaced by surgery.
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation(TAVI) – the replacement valve is guided into place through the blood vessels, rather than through a large incision in the chest.
  • Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery (MICS) – Instead of the traditional open heart surgery MICS is performed by making several small incisions which enables the surgeon to reach the heart.
Procedure for Aortic Valve Replacement
Before procedure
  • Standard blood and appropriate tests are done to gauge the patient’s fitness for surgery.
  • Patient is also counseled about the surgical procedure and post operative care.
During Procedure(open surgery )
  • The procedure is performed under general anesthesia meaning that the patient is unconscious during the operation.
  • Intravenous (IV) line is inserted, breathing tube is inserted and catheter put in the bladder.
  • Six to eight inch incision is made in middle of the chest, then the surgeon separates sternum to expose pericardium. Next the surgeon opens the pericardium to expose the heart.
  • Connects the heart to a heart lung machine. In this process tubes are used to reroute the blood into the machine which takes over the function of the heart and the lung during the period of the operation.
  • Heart is temporarily stopped and blood removed, aortic valve becomes still which allows the surgeon to see it.
  • Surgeon opens aorta to see aortic valve, makes incision around edge of damaged valve and then replaces it.
  • The surgeon then closes the aorta with stitches, blood is then allowed to flow into the heart to check it’s functioning. If required electric shocks are given to restart the heart.
  • Temporary pacemaker is wired in on the surface to ensure normal rhythm of the heart.
After Procedure

Post operative care is very important in Heart Valve Replacement. After the aortic valve replacement, the patient usually needs to stay a week in the hospital. The patient will be kept under observation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for the first day or two after the operation. Then the patient will be moved to a surgical ward. As part of the post operative care the following activities are generally carried out –

  • Activity of the heart, lungs and other bodily functions will be closely monitored. Wires will be attached to sensor pads to measure the patient’s heart rate, blood pressure and blood flow and also the air flow to the lungs.
  • Several tubes and monitors might be attached to the patient.
  • Painkillers will be given.
  • Till the time the patient is able to breathe on his own a tube attached to a ventilator will be placed.
  • A Draining tube may be used – these are small tubes from the chest to drain away any build-up of blood or fluid.
  • If necessary Pacing Wires will be inserted near the chest drains to control the heart rate of the patient.
After care
  • To follow a cardiac rehabilitation programme may be advised,
  • For a period of three months it is best to avoid strenuous exercise, sudden strains or heavy lifting.
  • For around six weeks the patient might be advised not to drive.
  • The doctor should be informed if any of the following occurs – if there are any signs of infection; shortness of breath or chest pain or dizziness; pain around the wound gets worse or pus comes out from the wound.
Risks of Aortic Valve Replacement surgery

Like any other major surgery the aortic valve replacement surgery presents certain risks. The risks of complications increase with the age and the general health of the patient. Here we are listing down some of the risks –

  • There could be wound infections, lung infections, bladder infections and heart valve infections.
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Blood clots
  • Stroke
  • There is a small chance that the new valve does not work
  • The valve may wear out with time
  • Temporary arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat )
  • Kidney problemsmay arise for a few days after surgery and in some cases temporary dialysis may be needed.
Factors Affecting Cost Of Aortic valve Replacement

The cost to the patient depends on a variety of factors like –

  • The hospital that the patient is opting for would be an important determinant of the total treatment cost.
  • Category of the Room taken and number of nights – There are different prices for standard single room, deluxe room or a super deluxe room. This could also include nursing fee, meals, room rate and room service
  • Fee for the team of doctors
  • Operating room and ICU costs
  • Cost of Medicines
  • Standard Tests and diagnostic procedures
  • Cost of the valve selected
  • Cost of the follow–up care which is required post the operation

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